A few common cold mucus photos I found:
Leaves and fruits of Baringtonia racemosa …. Lá và trái của cây Lộc Vừng, Mưng ….
Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Barringtonia racemosa trees have white or pink flowers. And Barringtonia acutangula trees have red flowers.
Cây Barringtonia racemosa có hoa trắng hay hồng, còn Barringtonia acutangula có hoa đỏ.
Vietnamese named : Cây mưng, Lộc vừng hoa chùm, Chiếc chùm, Tam lang.
English names : Stream Barringtonia, Freshwater Mangrove, Indian Oak, Indian Putat, Fish killer tree
Scientist name : Barringtonia racemosa
Synonyms : Barringtonia racemosa (Linn.) Blume, Eugenia racemosa Linn., Menichea rosata Sonn. Butonica rosata Miers
Barringtonia stravadium Blanco
Family : Lecythidaceae . Họ Lộc Vừng
Searched from :
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Barringtonia acutangula subsp. spicata : Lộc vừng đỏ, Chiếc khế
Barringtonia racemosa: Chiếc, Lộc vừng trắng, hồng
Other names : Indian Oak, Indian Putat, Vừng, Chiếc, Ngọc Nhị Tam Lang.
Hoa Lộc Vừng thuộc loài cây ưa sáng và ẩm, thường mọc ven các ao đầm hồ nước ngọt hay nước lợ. Hoa lộc vừng thường nở vào giữa mùa hè và mùa thu vào khoảng tháng 6 – 7 đến tháng 11. Được xếp vào bộ tứ quý Sanh, Sung , Tùng , Lộc nên Lộc vừng thường được trồng làm cảnh hay Bonsai.
Người miền Nam thì gọi lộc vừng là cây chiếc. Cây chiếc có hai loại, bông màu đỏ và bông màu trắng hồng. Chiếc thường mọc hoang dọc theo bờ biền, đọt chiếc được hái về cuốn bánh xèo, hay ăn với cá lóc nướng.
Ngày xưa ít ai để ý đến bông của nó vì hoa thường nỡ về đêm, trời tờ mờ sáng khoảng 8 giờ là hoa rụng thành thảm quanh gốc và dập dìu theo sóng nước.
Trái chiếc có khía như trái khế. Khi đã già, trái rụng xuống theo con nước, trôi dạt và tấp vào bờ rồi mọc thành cây con. Dòng chuyển hoá của cây chiếc cứ luân lưu tự nhiên từ bao đời như vậy. Sau này, dân trồng bonsai đem cây chiếc về phố, cho vào phòng máy lạnh, từ chú vịt con xấu xí trở thành thiên nga với cái tên mỹ miều lộc vừng , hay mang màu sắc huơng xa một chút : ngọc nhị tam lang. Cây chiếc mọc hoang được tận dụng cả cây lớn lẫn cây nhỏ đem buôn bán vì dân làm ăn tin rằng nó mang lại tài lộc may mắn.
Nhìn cây chiếc trong chậu, sao bỗng dưng nhớ tới thân phận của những nàng thôn nữ bị tiến cung thời xưa. Đẹp, nhưng não nùng, có phải hồng nhan đa truân ?
…Không biết cây chiếc sống trong lầu son gác tía có nhớ về khoảng trời xanh ngát, về dòng sông, bờ biền, con nước ròng nước lớn và tiếng bìm bịp kêu chiều…..
Lộc vừng hoa chùm, Chiếc chùm, Tam lang – Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Spreng., thuộc họ Lộc vừng – Lecythidaceae.
Mô tả: Cây gỗ có kích thước trung bình. Lá dạng màng, thuôn, xoan ngược hay hình ngọn giáo, thon hẹp rồi thắt lại gần như hình tim trên cuống, có mũi nhọn, dài 10-30cm, rộng 5-10cm, cuống dài 3-7cm. Hoa nhiều, thành bông ở ngọn hay ở bên thòng xuống dài 25-50cm. Quả bằng quả trứng gà, thon hẹp, bao bởi đài hoa tồn tại, có khi có 4 góc thon hẹp, nhẵn. Hạt đơn độc, xoan thuôn.
Hoa tháng 4-7.
Bộ phận dùng: Rễ, vỏ, quả, hạt – Radix, Cortex, Fructus et Semen Barringtoniae Racemosae.
Nơi sống và thu hái: Cây mọc rải rác ở khắp nước ta, thường ở gần bờ biển, hay dựa rạch từ Hoà Bình đến Biên Hoà. Còn phân bố ở các nước Lào, Campuchia, Ấn Ðộ, Malaixia, Philippin.
Thành phần hoá học: Có glucosid saponin vỏ chứa 18% tanin.
Tính vị, tác dụng: Rễ đắng, có tính hạ nhiệt. Hạt thơm.
Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Rễ được dùng trị bệnh sởi. Quả dùng trị ho và hen suyễn. Nhân hạt giã ra thêm bột và dầu, dùng trị ỉa chảy. Hạt được dùng trị các cơn đau bụng, và bệnh về mắt, còn dùng để duốc cá.
Ở Malaixia, lá hoặc cả rễ và vỏ dùng đắp trị ghẻ và các nốt đậu.
Ở Ấn Ðộ, rễ làm thông, làm mát, quả trị ho, hen và ỉa chảy, nhân hạt cùng với sữa dùng trị bệnh vàng da và các chứng bệnh về mật; hạt dùng trị đau bụng và bệnh về mắt, hạt và vỏ trị giun, đuốc cá, xổ và sát trùng.
Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Roxb.
This beautiful mangrove tree is easily recognized by its large leaves, delicate white flowers and guava-like fruit that hang in long racemes.
Barringtonia racemosa has a straight, unbranched stem that leads to a rounded crown and is usually 4-8 m tall, but occasionally reaches 15 m. The bark is greyish brown to pink with white blotches and raised dots and lines. The branches are marked with leaf scars.
The leaves are alternate and carried in clusters at the ends of branches, are 180-320 x 55-145 mm, with petioles 5-12 mm long. The midribs are prominent on the lower side of the leaf and the branching veins are visible on both sides.
The flowers are produced on hanging racemes up to 1 m long. The buds are pinkish red and split open to bring forth masses of delicate stamens in white sprays up to 35 mm wide, which are often tinged with pink. The flowers give off a pungent, putrid yet faintly sweet odour in the morning. The fruit are quadrangular, 65 x 40 mm. Each fruit contains a single seed surrounded by spongy, fibrous flesh that provides the buoyancy that allows the fruit to be carried off with the tide.
Distribution and habitat
Barringtonia racemosa is mainly a coastal species that thrives under very humid, moist conditions. It is common along tropical and subtropical coasts in the Indian Ocean, starting at the east coast of South Africa. It is also common in Mozambique, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, southern China, northern Australia, the Ryukyu Islands of Japan and a number of Polynesian islands. It does grow well under dry conditions but it cannot tolerate even mild frost.
Barringtonia racemosa is not threatened in any way.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
The genus Barringtonia contains 56 species and is named after Daines Barrington, an 18th century botanist, jurist and antiquary. The specific name racemosa refers to the long racemes on which the flowers and fruit are borne. B. racemosa is the only indigenous species of this genus occurring in South Africa. Two Asian species exist in cultivation in the Durban Botanic Gardens- B. asiatica and B. acutangula.
Barringtonia racemosa can tolerate salt water and therefore thrives under coastal and estaurine conditions. It also grows well under dry conditions where frost does not occur. The chief dispersal agent for the buoyant seeds is the tide. Although there are no records of animals eating the fruit, the presence of the trees up to 1 000 m above sea level points to an as yet unknown animal as a dispersal agent. It flowers twice a year: in spring and again from January to April. The strong scent produced by the flowers at night attract moths and nectar-feeding bats. After the flowers (petals and stamens) are shed, the inflorescences are often crowded with ants that are attracted to the nectar. It is the larval food plant for the butterfly Coeliades keithloa.
Uses and cultural aspects
The seeds, bark, wood and roots contain the poison saponin and is used to stun fish. The bark, which also has a high tannin content, is frequently used in powdered form for this purpose. Extracts from the plant are effective insectides and are also used medicinally in the East; in South Africa the Zulus use the fruit to treat malaria. In Bengal the seeds are used to poison people and coconut is said to be the antidote. The young leaves are edible and the bark is often used for cordage.
It grows rapidly from the seed or cuttings that are pushed into the ground. The typical substrate on which it grows is the black mud on the banks of the estuaries on South Africa ‘s east coast.
Split the hard outer covering of the fruit to expose the seed which is about the size of a small chicken egg. Usually a large proportion of the fruits are seedless. Place the seed in a 1:1 mixture of sand and compost kept in a warm, well-ventilated area receiving a lot of light. The seeds generally germinate in 10 to 14 days, depending upon the heat. The seedlings can be planted out into large containers or into the open ground in their second season of growth.
When growing it in a garden (or relatively dry conditions), it is best to water it regularly during the establishment phase and during winter, otherwise the plant is likely to die. In Durban and Sri Lanka the weather is such that it is used as a roadside tree. Generally B. racemosa cannot tolerate even mild frost, however, it has been grown successfully in the Highveld when kept in a greenhouse under permanently well-watered and very humid conditions.
The very large, spear-shaped leaves provide plenty of shade and any plants grown in close proximity to the tree should be shade plants that can tolerate very moist soils. It is well suited for small gardens because the horizontal branching of B. racemosa makes the canopy easy to prune to the required size. B. racemosa is deciduous, dropping its leaves for a short time in early summer before the first rains on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal.
The wood is susceptible to sap-stain and being attacked by termites and marine borer; the sapwood is prone to attack by Lyctus borers.
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Barringtonia racemosa (Linn.) Blume
Putat is a smooth, small tree, growing to a height of 10 meters. Branches have prominent leaf-scars. Leaves occur at the ends of the branches, subsessile, oblong-obate, 10 to 30 cm long, pointed at both ends, toothed at the margins. Flowers are white or pink, borne on terminal racemes or on drooping races from axils of fallen leaves, 20 to 60 cm long. Calyx encloses the bud, later splitting irregularly into 2 or 3 ovate, concave segments. Petals are oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 2 to 2.5 cm long, slightly united at the base. Stamens are very numerous, 3 to 4 cm long. Fruit is ovoid to oblong-ovoid, 5 to 6 cm long, somewhat 4-angled, crowned by a persistent calyx. Leathery pericarp of the fruit is green or purplis in color.
In thickets and damp places along the seashore and streams, at low altitudes.
Occasionally planted as a roadside ornament for its drooping inflorescences of white and pink flowers.
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark isolated five compounds: 3,3′-dimethoxy ellagic acid, dihydromyticetin, gallic acid, bartogenic acid and stigmasterol.
- Ethanolic extract of roots yielded two novel neo-clerodane-type diterpenoids – nasimalun A and nasimalun B.
Bark is antirheumatic.
Roots are considered deobstruent and cooling.
Seeds are aromatic.
Bark, leaves, fruit, seeds.
Decoction of bark used as antirheumatic.
Poultices of leaves used for skin itches, chicken pox, alone or with bark or root.
Fruit used for asthma, coughs and diarrhea.
Pulverized fruit used as snuff for hemicrania; combined with other remedies, applied for skin affections.
Seeds, given with milk, used for colic; also used for parturition.
Powdered fruit, used as snuff to clear the nostrils; also applied externally, in combination with other remedies, for throat and skin eruptions.
In Kerala, India, seeds traditionally used to treat cancer-type diseases.
In Malaysia, used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer.
Fish poison: Bark is used as a fish poison. Seeds are used for intoxicating fish.
Illuminant: Oil from the seed used as illuminant.
• Antinociceptive / Toxicological Studies: Study of aqueous bark extract showed antinociceptive activity without producing unwarranted side effects and toxicity. The effect was mediated mainly via opioid mechanisms, probably through phenolic and steroidal constituents in the extract.
• Anti-Tumor / Non-Toxic: Study of methanolic seed extract on mice challenged with Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascitic cells showed remarkable dose-dependent anti-DLA activity in mice in an efficacy better than standard drug, vincristine. The extract seemed devoid of acute and short-term toxicity.
• Molluscicidal / Cercaricidal / Mosquito Larvicidal / Antiplasmodial: Study of aqueous extracts of fruit and seed approximately equipotent molluscicidal, cercaricidal, larvicidal and antiplasmodial properties in experimental models used. Biological effects were attributed to the triterpenoid saponins, esp barringtogenol and barringtogenic acid in the fruit and seed of the plant.
• Anti-Arthritic: Study of validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of BR in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions and establishes its potent anti-arthritic.
• Antifungal: Study of extracts of B racemosa leaves and bark yielded two different phenolic acids (gallic and ferrulic) and four flavonoids (naringin, rutin, luteolin and kaempferol). Results showed antifungal activity against Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp. and T koningii. Results provide scientifica basis for use of the plants extracts for future development of antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Lycopene: Study showed the crude extracts to be strong inhibitors of NO. Phytochemical analysis showed B racemosa to be an important source of lycopene, long recognized as an important antioxidant, in vivo and in vitro. The study concludes with a correlation between the antioxidant activity and lycopene content of B racemosa.
• Antioxidant: Study of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of all aerial parts exhibited very strong antioxidant properties when compared to BHT, ascorbic acid, and a-tocopherol in free radical scavenging and reducing power assays.
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Résumé / Abstract
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.
Revue / Journal Title
Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences ISSN 0250-474X
Source / Source
2008, vol. 70, no5, pp. 677-679 [3 page(s) (article)]
Langue / Language
Editeur / Publisher
Indian Pharmaceutical Association, Bombay, INDE (1978) (Revue)
Localisation / Location
INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 2368, 35400018491523.0270
This is an evergreen tree of moderate size, called by Sanskrit writers Hijja or Hijjala. The fruit is spoken of as Samudra-phala and Dhātriphala or "nurse’s fruit," and is one of the best known domestic remedies. When children suffer from a cold in the chest, the seed is rubbed down on a stone with water and applied over the sternum, and if there is much dyspnoea a few grains with or without the juice of fresh ginger are administered internally and seldom fail to induce vomiting and the expulsion of mucus from the air passages. To reduce the enlarged abdomen of children it is given in doses of from 2 to 3 grains in milk. Rumphius states that the roots are used to kill fish, and this use of the bark is known in most parts of India. The fish are said to be not unwholesome.
Barringtonia racemosa has similar properties, the bark, root and seed being bitter. Ainslie states that in Java and in Ternate the seeds are used for intoxicating fish. The powdered seeds of these plants induce sneezing.
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